1089 St. Mary’s Abbey founded by the Normans
1349 Black Death beginning to afflict province and diocese of York
1377 York the wealthiest provincial town in England
1457 Reign of Henry VII one of comparative peace and fair prosperity, encouraging 1509 men from Kendal, Cockermouth, Penrith, York and elsewhere in the North to go to Carlisle.
1485 Epidemic in York
1486 Domp. Rob. Wanhope admitted to Corpus Christi Guild, York
1487 York’s population allegedly halved, perhaps in aftermath of an epidemic.
1493-94 Epidemic in York
1496 William Senhouse, the Abbot of St Mary’s, York, became Bishop of Carlisle from 1496 to 1502. He retained his appointment at York until he was translated to Durham in 1502, whereupon Robert Wanhope succeeded him as Abbot of St. Mary’s
1500’s York population varied between 8,000 – 12,000
1502 Robert Wanhope initiated as the Abbot of St Mary’s Abbey on 20 December 1502, after translation to Durham of William Senhouse, Bishop of Carlisle, the previous Abbot
1504 Riots when commoners opposed the election and installation of the mayor. Epidemic in York
1507 Death of Robert Wanhope, Abbot of St Mary’s circa 6 May 1507 Prior of Carlisle elected a member of the Corpus Christi Guild
1510-60 York’s fortunes at their lowest
1514 Serious disorders in the city
1520’s Government deposited large sums at St. Mary’s Abbey between 1520’s and the 1530’s to pay garrisons to the north.
1524 York sunk to be only the fourteenth most wealthy town in England from being second to London in 1377. A major reason was the ascendancy in cloth gained by the West Riding, and the consequent desertion of York. 876 taxpayers in York
1525 The Cliffords of Skipton made Earls of Cumberland
1530 William Thornton was Abbot of St. Mary’s, being previously Prior of Wetheral.
1536 Enclosure riots and Parliament allowed the King to suppress religious houses worth under £200 a year, including St. Clements and Holy Trinity in York. Subsequent wide-spread revolt against government policies in Yorkshire in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which was supported by the York ‘commons’ and probably largely inspired by the monastic suppressions. No vengeance was exacted on York subsequently, although several leading rebels were executed in the city in 1537.
1536-9 Fall of the monasteries and friaries
1537 Council of the North established, reviving an earlier institution with increased authority. The Council was led by William Sever, Abbot of St. Mary’s and Bishop of Carlisle, on behalf of Henry VII. After 1537, York was firmly and permanently under Government supervision – as it had not been before and particularly in the years 1455-85.
1538-41 First well-recorded epidemic in York; more serious than any attack in the previous thirty years
1539 St. Mary’s surrendered for dissolution on 29 November 1539; having been the richest house in the North, its lands were now sold off. (Note: St Olave’s is earliest surviving York register beginning in December 1538 )
1545 Mercenaries from Cleves billeted in York Johaune Wanhope, ‘filie Rolande Wanhope Bapt. XI o die julii’ Baptised St Olave’s York
1546 John Wauhope, ‘j garthen in tholdyng of John Wauhope xiii jd.’ Deanery of theChristianity of York. ‘Chauntre of William Frost and Isobell his Wyffe, wuthyn the saydParisshe Churche’ Ellyne Wannopp, Spouse: Christopher Sugden Record at St. Crux,York
1548 Roulandus Wanhep, ‘fili ‘lorentius Wanhep Bapt. octo die novembris’ Baptised St Olave’s York
1549 1000 German mercenaries billeted in York.
1550 Last serious Tudor riots in York, by local rural labourers protesting against therequisitioning of corn supplies.
1550-51 Heavy mortality from bubonic plague, with death of perhaps half of York’s population.St Mary’s Abbey demolished, but King’s Manor spared.
1550’s Rise in food prices caused trouble at York with city’s craftsmen demandinghigher wages.
1558 Commencement of reign of Elizabeth, during which York’s population doubled by 1603due to massive immigration, but only after possibly worst of the century’s epidemics.Part of nationwide outbreak of influenza. Number of deaths in York unknown due to anapparent cessation of registration but seemingly high. Combined with severe economicdepression, deaths caused York population to drop by a third or more. By the end ofMary’s reign the city was very unfortunate; monks and friars had been turned out, with orwithout pensions after the end of legalized Catholicism.
1559 ‘Item, payed to Rolland Wannope for kepying clene St.Leonards lendyng at all tymesneydfull ii js. ii jd.’ Fabric Rolls of York Minster.
1560 Admissions of freemen rose sharply following the severe death rate of 1558
1568 First ‘trial’ of Mary Queen of Scots at York.Robartus Wanhope, baker, admitted as a Freeman. Robartus probably from outsideYork, his sons Edwardus a labourer and ——— (unnamed) a milner, becoming freementhrough their father. The Freeman title was reserved almost entirely for men fromoutside York and for freemens’ sons. 33 came from Cumbria, closely connected to Yorkby trade in Kendal cloth.
1572 Four leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace executed, including the Earl of Northumberland.
1575 Intolerance of Catholic practice, such as opening of shops on Sundays and fair days.
1576-8 Most leading recusants either scattered or imprisoned, although up to about 80recusant adults persisted until end of the century
1580 Merchants and tradesmen prospering again after York’s decline in period 1460-1560.
1582-89 Twenty people martyred at York.
1587 Nationwide famine, but with slight effect in York where corn remained cheap.
1592-94 Harrying of Catholics in the North, all over Yorkshire, Richmondshire, Cleveland,Durham and Northumberland
1596-98 Nationwide famine with more effect on York, which had to import grain.
1599 Hugo Waunope, glover, admitted as a Freeman
1600 Up to about 80 recusant adults persisted until end of the century
1603 James VI of Scotland broke his journey at York while on his way to assume also thecrown of England, following Elizabeth’s death.During Elizabeth’s reign, York’s population doubled to around 11,500. The city’s recoverycoincided with the establishment of the Council of the North on a permanent basis andthe allied increase of trades – glovers, etc., serving the associated gentry.
1603-04 Wanop, milner, son of Roberti, admitted as a Freeman
1604 Last terrible epidemic of bubonic plague killed 3,512 people or 30% of York’spopulation. Edwardus Wanopp, laborer, son of Roberti, admitted as a Freeman
1089 St. Mary’s Abbey founded by the Normans